Jurnal : ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER MANAGEMENT AS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CURRICULUM 2013
Sri Supiah Cahyati , Cynantia Rachmijati, Nai Supartini
STKIP SILIWANGI BANDUNG
Curriculum 2013, implemented on the academic year of 2013-2014, is one of the efforts of the curriculum developer to answer today’s challenge, the future’s challenge, the perception from the society, the development of knowledge and pedagogy, future skills, and the uprising of the negative phenomenon (Hasan,2013). In curriculum 2013 there are several factors in the curriculum management. They are: teachers, books, students, and supervising. The objective of this study is to analyze the teachers’ role in terms of their effort and readiness towards curriculum 2013. English subject in curriculum 2013 clearly showing that the teachers’ authority is smaller, their competence is sufficient, the workload is heavier, while the teaching-learning process is not really effective. This shows that the teachers and the implementation still needs time and supports from the stakeholders.
Keywords: curriculum 2013, teachers’ management, English teacher, high school
Curriculum has a very important role in the held of the education system (Nasution, 2000). Therefore, a curriculum change in periodical time is necessary to answers the challenge of times. Therefore it needs an active change and responsive from the curriculum developers in national scale to answers those challenges that keep changing.
Teacher as the curriculum executor in the field obviously has an important roles in managing the success of a curriculum design. Richard (2001) believes that in implementing the change in curriculum, teacher is the key factor. Moreover in a situation where the facility is limited, the difference in cultural, the impact with the environment, and the diversity of the students, a good teacher should able to be the agents of curriculum changes.
That the teacher is a key factor to the success of the curriculum is also suggested by Campbel (2012) who see teachers as the agent of change. The teachers support the teaching-learning, and schooling and even participate in the making of curriculum in the current policy. The teachers’ role is the one who interact directly with the students in the classroom.
Curriculum 2013, lately is becoming the hot issues especially in the education society, contents many standards. The most important thing is the basic competence (standar kompetensi) which draws the concept for the subjects itself, such as subjects, the subjects position, the subjects distribution in a semester and their credits for each class (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 2013). From that curriculum structure itself, it is also applied with a certain skills along with the certain competent that needs to be fulfilled for each subject, called kompetensi inti and kompetensi dasar. By that new regulation and policy, it is hopeful that the Indonesian people gain the same level of education and competent as it is regulated in curriculum 2013.
In the curriculum 2013, there are some elements in the curriculum managements, they are: teachers, books, students and supervising. Considering the teachers’ role and the structure of Curriculum 2013, the objective of this study is to see the teachers’ role in terms of their effort and readiness towards curriculum 2013. Therefore the title of this study is “Analysis of English High School Teachers’ Management as the Implementation of Curriculum 2013”. With this study, it is hopeful that this study can explore the analytical situation from the teachers’ factors.
1.Questions of the research
a. How is the English high school teacher’s response to the Curriculum 2013 in terms of a practical learning methodology?
b. How far is the readiness of the English high school teacher in understanding and implementing the curriculum 2013?
2.The objective of the research
a. To analyze the English high school teacher’s response to the Curriculum 2013 in terms of practical learning methodology.
b. To analyze the readiness of the English high school teacher in understanding and implementing the Curriculum 2013.
3.The limitation of the research
1. The subject of the research is the English subject High School teachers.
2. The settings of the research are: Cimahi, Cianjur and Karawang regions. The three places represent the Jawa Barat provinces from the south, middle, and north in the geographic region.
B. LITERATURE REVIEW
Curriculum means a planning for a learning program (Richards and Schmidt, 2002). Therefore it is a learning program – a chain of educating event. But seeing from curriculum field of knowledge, historical and philosophical, its meaning is wide and complex. Marsh (2004) defines the characteristic of curriculum as follows: a. it is a permanent lesson that contains an essential knowledge, b. curriculum is a life lesson, c. curriculum is an organized lessons that needs the responsibility from the school, d. the whole learning experience where the students get their skills and knowledge, e. is what the students built and do with computer and different networks.
Nuh (2013: 72), Minister of Education and Culture, explains that the theme of curriculum 2013 is “a curriculum that can produce Indonesian people who are productive, creative, innovative, and affective through attitude, skills, and integrative knowledge. He also adds that Curriculum 2013 is the answer to improve human sources in facing the changes of the world. He explains that the implementation of this curriculum will be starting in the academic year of 2013-2014 starting in July for the first and fourth grader of Elementary School, 7th grade in junior high school and 10th grade for high school and vocational high school. It will be partial in 2013 but for in 2014 it will be held throughout every school in Indonesia.
3. Management of Curriculum 2013
In Curriculum 2013, there are a few elements in their managements such asc: teachers, books, students and supervising which can be seen from the table below:
Table 1. The Elements in Curriculum 2013
Elements The management size Curriculum 2013
Teacher Authority Limited
Competence It should be high, but for those who still Low there are guidance books
The effectiveness of learning activity High
Books Publisher’s role Small
Content and process Low
Students The learning results Not entirely based on the teachers, but also on the books that available from the governments
Supervising Deviation point Small
Scale of deviation Low
4.The implementation of Curriculum 2013
The implementation of Curriculum 2013 is an actualization of the curriculum into learning activity and the molding of the competent and student’s character. These things require the teacher to create and develop many activities that fits into the program. The teachers should be able to make decisions, make good judgments, master learning methodology, employ teaching aid, and understand how to assess their students’ works.
The learning activity in curriculum 2013 is a competence learning activity by using a scientific approach that encourages students to see, ask, try/collect the data, associate, and communicate. This method is adapted from the scientific steps in growing the knowledge through a scientific perspective, and therefore it will have a “sense of inquiry” and the ability to “creative thinking”.
The acts of seeing, asking, trying/collecting the data, associating, and communicating in English subjects are:
1. To see: to associate the learning subjects with daily everyday life situation. It consists of listening, reading the text, social functions, the language, and the writing.
2. To ask: to improve student’s ability in forms of concepts, principle, procedures, and theory to have them thinking creatively, logically, and systematically. It consists of questioning activity, such as comparing the structure of language pattern in Bahasa and English.
3. To explore: to improve student’s ability in English, such as role play, simulation, etc.
4. To associate: to help and improve students to think and act academically. It consists of any group activities, such as analyzing the text, categories, etc.
5. To communicate: to help students delivers their results in writing or speaking forms. It consists of writing, presenting, blogging, journal, school boards, etc.
1. Research Methodology
This research used a descriptive qualitative method by analyzing the English High School teacher’s readiness in implementing Curriculum 2013. The data were described in matrix.
2. Subjects of the Research
The subjects of the research were the English High School teachers in Cianjur, Cimahi, and Karawang regions. The samples were taken using purposive sampling technique.
3.Instrument of the research
The instruments that used in this research were questioner and interview. The questioner was aimed to ask the respondents about their readiness and responses towards Curriculum 2013 and interview was used to clarify the answers. The data used in this research is primary (main) and secondary data.
The main data were from the English teachers as the subject of the research. The secondary data were taken from Dinas Pendidikan as the source data of the High Schools that implement the Curriculum 2013 in their schools.
The readiness variables were collected from 4 criteria which are suited with the Teachers’ Management of Curriculum 2013:
a. Teacher’s authority.
b. Teacher’s competence.
c. Teacher’s workload.
d. The effectiveness of the teaching-learning activity.
The answers from the questioner, hence, will be analyzed.
1.1 High School which implementing the Curriculum 2013
The implementation of Curriculum 2013 is ongoing progress. Based on the data there are several schools that have been appointed as the Pilot Project of the Implementation of Curriculum 2013. The regions that studied were Cimahi, Cianjur and Karawang regions. The three regions chosen as represent the West Java provinces. Based on their geographical area, they are seen as the south, middle, and north of West Java.
In this research, schools that were chosen based on the easy access to the school. The data of the school are as follow:
Table 2. High School who implements Curriculum 2013
Area Schools that implements Curriculum 2013 Samples of the research
1 Cianjur 7 High Schools and 9 Vocational schools 3 High Schools
2 Cimahi 3 High schools and 7 vocational schools 3 High schools
3 Karawang 6 high schools and 11 vocational schools 2 High Schools
The appointment of the high school that implements the Curriculum 2013 is done by Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Direktorat Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah based on their schools judgement.
Teacher is the key point in teaching – learning activity. The teacher’s role, as variables in teaching-learning activity in class, is regarded as the successful of the curriculum itself.
The followings are the data of English High School teachers as the subject of the research:
Table 3. English High School Teachers
No School Educational Background Having the curriculum 2013 training
1 Respondent 1 Master degree Yes
2 Respondent 2 Bachelor degree Yes
3 Respondent 3 Bachelor Degree Yes
4 Respondent 4 Bachelor Degree No
5 Respondent 5 (ongoing) Master Degree Yes
6 Respondent 6 Bachelor Degree Yes
7 Respondent 7 Bachelor Degree Yes
8 Respondent 8 Bachelor Degree Yes
1.3 Teachers’ Management Factor
The data from the respondents can be seen as follow:
The English teacher’s authorities: The teachers gave many varied answers, but most of the respondents declared the teachers’ authorities were less, due to the reasons of :
a. The lesson is already chosen (by the government)
b. The syllabus is already chosen
c. The textbook is already chosen
b.Teacher’s competence :
The data from the respondents a. Almost all the respondents have an English Bachelor degree
b. Almost all the respondents had their training in Curriculum 2013
c. Almost all the respondents had been working for more than 5 years
The training and supervising of Curriculum 2013 a. Good in implementing and supervising
b. There’s reward and punishment to achieve its effectiveness
c. Teachers more understand and know what to do in the class
The main factor in curriculum Most of the respondents declared that their workload is heavier, due to several reasons :
a. The teacher should pay more attention to the students
b. The learning material isn’t only from books
c. The English text book from government isn’t available yet
The students competencies Most respondents are agree that their workload is heavier, due to several reasons :
a. The grading of the students has become more comprehensive
b. The grading method is totally different from the usual
c. To differentiate of one student to another is more difficult because the grading standard is using index factor
d.The effectiveness of teaching-learning activity :
Learning method The teachers gave many varied answers, but most of the respondents declared:
a. No special method, but make sure that all students participates in teaching-learning process
b. Use technology
c. Scientific approach and genre based approach depends on the teacher’s creativity
Teaching-learning activity a. Focusing on “students”, therefore students will be more active
b. Use “scientific”, therefore knowledge and science will improve
c. The studying time in English is actually more less than other subjects, teachers afraid in their fall back of the ability
d. This curriculum more focus on student’s attitude and characteristic – while in English the important point such as speaking and grammar have been quite neglected
e. The grading process has become more detailed – not only judged the student’s ability but also their attitude
f. The English subject textbook based on the Curriculum 2013 is not available
Allocated time Mostly disagree, because :
a. Heavier workload, both for the teachers and students
b. The classroom isn’t available
c. No added hour, but in fact lesser than usual
2.1. The English high school teacher’s response to the Curriculum 2013 in terms of a practical learning. methodology
Based on the respondents’ opinions, teacher’s authority is smaller (lesser) due to syllabus, learning materials, and the textbook have been decided by the government and not from the teacher. But then, the materials demanded to be analyzed and comprehended by the teachers to be associated with the daily life needs. Teachers should have more competence. While the assessment of the students, which are not based solely from their paper tests, is the teacher’s authority.
Looking at the syllabus, learning materials and the text books, the teacher’s authority seems smaller (lesser). On the other hand, from the teaching-learning process and the grading process, the teacher’s authority are bigger.
Based on the data, it is obvious that all of the teachers already have their degree. Almost all had their Curriculum 2013 training and have experiences of more than 5 years in teaching. Theoretically, their competence is more than enough.
But apparently, the changing from KTSP to Curriculum 2013 philosophically is very basic. The differences are in the teaching-learning activity and the grading process. The teaching-learning process consists of teacher, students and teaching method. Those three factors make or ruin the implementation of Curriculum 2013.
Therefore, the teacher’s competences can’t be seen solely based on their degree and experience, but also the readiness to face a challenge and thus need other training, such as technology, computer, curriculum 2013 training and others.
Conceptually, in Curriculum 2013 the teacher’s workload supposed to be lighter. But in reality it’s heavier. Starting from the preparation of the syllabus and the learning materials, yet the teacher does not need to prepare anymore since it is available. But in teaching-learning activity, it needs extra energy and extra competences to deal with the time changes, other knowledge, and attention to the students – which are heavier workload. Therefore, it needs teachers with comprehensive competencies.
d.The effectiveness of teaching-learning activity
The high school characteristic and the teacher that became the subject of the research described the situation in the West Java province. Obviously, the Curriculum 2013 has not been implemented to every school due to the lack of the human resources: teachers, students, and facilities. At this moment, the effectiveness of teaching and learning activity has not been achieved successfully. The reasons are:
– The teachers have not been fully competence.
– The difference of teaching-learning method, that hasn’t been successfully applied by the students, they are still using their “conventional method” of teaching and learning
– The facilities that has not been completed and supported yet, even the textbook in English Subject of the Curriculum 2013 still not available
– The allocated time still does not meet the expectations of the learning materials.
2.2. The readiness of the English high school teacher in understanding and implementing the Curriculum 2013
Based on the collected data, the implementation of the Curriculum 2013 is ongoing progress by appointing some schools as the pilot project. This policy shows that the government still not fully ready to support the implementation of the Curriculum 2013. The changes from the previous curriculum (KTSP/School Based Curriculum) to Curriculum 2013 have a very basic difference. These differences are shown in the teaching-learning activity and the grading process. This readiness should be supported by the teacher’s competence as the key point of the success and effectiveness of the curriculum implementation.
Based on the analysis of the data above, it can be concluded:
a. The teachers’ responses toward the Curriculum 2013 shows the teacher’s workload is decreasing, the competence is sufficient, the workload is heavier and yet the effectiveness is not fully achieved.
The implementation of the Curriculum 2013 is not effective yet due to some problems such as: the teachers’ competences, changing the teacher & students’ teaching-learning habit, and even the teaching-learning facility. It is assumed that the implementation of Curriculum 2013 is working effectively in a big city with better facilities and the students with a better learning culture.
b. The teachers’ readiness in applying the Curriculum 2013 is not fully ready. It takes time and changing the behavior is not an easy task. An ideal cultural study will be created but takes time and needs support from the stakeholders, such as: teachers, students, teaching-learning method, and its environment.
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